Asian Pacific Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences https://www.apjnh.com/index.php/apjnh <p class="leadleft">Asian Pacific Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences (APJNH) is an international journal published Bi annually. It is a peer reviewed journal aiming to communicate high quality original research work, reviews, short communications, case report and Letter to editor, technical notes, nurse education that contribute significantly to further the scientific knowledge related to the field of nursing and health sciences. Articles with timely interest and newer research concepts will be given more preference.</p> <p class="leadleft">All articles published in this journal represent the opinion of the authors and not reflect the official policy of the Asian Pacific Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences [APJNH]. All papers are subjected to double blinded peer-review.</p> <p><strong>Brief Information about APJNH</strong></p> <ul> <li><strong>Journal Title: </strong>Asian Pacific Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences</li> <li><strong>Journal Abbreviation: </strong>Asian Pac. J. Nurs. and Health Sci.<strong> </strong></li> <li><strong> Publisher: </strong>Academy of Health Professionals</li> <li><strong>Country: </strong>India</li> <li><strong>Language: </strong>English</li> <li><strong>Publishing Frequency: </strong>June and December</li> <li><strong>Editor In Chief:</strong> Dr. Satinder Kakar</li> <li><strong>E-mail: </strong><a href="mailto:editor@apjnh.com">editor@apjnh.com</a> ; <a href="mailto:editorapjnh@gmail.com">editorapjnh@gmail.com</a></li> <li><strong>Website: </strong><a href="https://www.apjnh.com">https://www.apjnh.com</a></li> <li><strong>Publication: </strong>Online only</li> <li><strong>e-ISSN: </strong>2581-7442</li> <li><strong>Year of Start: </strong>2018</li> <li><strong>Review Process: </strong>Double-blind peer review</li> </ul> <p> </p> en-US editor@apjnh.com (Dr. Satinder Kakar) editorapjnh@gmail.com (Dr. Japman Singh) Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.8 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Optimizing Azathioprine Preformulation and Exploring its Interactions with Excipients https://www.apjnh.com/index.php/apjnh/article/view/49 <p>Preformulation studies investigate the physical and chemical properties of a drug substance, alone and in combination with other excipients. The goal of these studies is to develop a safe, effective, and stable dosage form. Preformulation studies are initiated once a new molecule is seeded. They focus on the concepts of physicochemical properties, which are vital for any new drug molecule and/or proteins/peptides. These properties affect the therapeutic efficacy and the development process of their specific dosage form. The stage of development known as preformulation is when the physicochemical qualities are defined by a set of parameters. Among these are characteristics of solid states such crystal form, water sorption behaviour, surface property, particle size and shape, other mechanical properties, solubility, dissolution behaviour, stability, partition coefficient, and ionisation constant. Drugs are almost always given a compounded property rather than being delivered as a pure chemical ingredient. These can range from quite easy fixes to intricate medication delivery schemes. through the incorporation of suitable excipients or additives into the formulations to offer legitimate and specific medicinal actions. Achieving a consistent, therapeutic response to a drug incorporated in a formulation that can be manufactured on a wide scale with repeatable results is the main goal of dosage form design. The main goal of designing a dosage form is to provide a medicine incorporated in a formulation with a predictable, therapeutic response that can be manufactured on a wide scale with consistent product quality. Preformulation studies are typically used to characterize and determine the stability of the medicinal ingredient. Since stability testing is the main method used to determine when pharmaceutical products should be put into clinical trials and under what storage conditions, it is imperative that the stability profile of any novel component be determined before moving further with product development. Throughout the course of the drug product's lifecycle, stability studies are essential to establishing and guaranteeing its safety, efficacy, and quality. stability information for the drug substance are used to determine optimal storage and packaging conditions for bulk lots of the material. Studies are designed to degrade the solid drug substance and appropriate solutions, allowing the determination of the degradation profile.</p> Jogender Nagar, Suresh Choudhary Copyright (c) 2024 Jogender Nagar, Suresh Choudhary https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.apjnh.com/index.php/apjnh/article/view/49 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Peptic Ulcer Disease: Retrospection on History, Pathophysiology its Mainstream and Herbal Drug Therapy https://www.apjnh.com/index.php/apjnh/article/view/51 <p>Peptic ulcer, a persistent condition affecting approximately 10% of the global population, arises due to factors such as gastric juice pH and a decline in mucosal defenses. The primary causes of mucosal resistance disruption leading to peptic ulcers are attributed to the use of NSAIDs and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Despite traditional treatments such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine-2 (H2) receptor antagonists, limitations like adverse effects, relapses, and potential drug interactions have been observed. The main objective of antiulcer therapy is to either prevent acid secretion from gastric parietal cells or neutralize the acid before it reaches ulcerated areas in the gastrointestinal tract. Conventional approaches for duodenal ulcers, including diet, antacids, and anticholinergics, have been in practice for an extended period. However, only antacids have been definitively proven effective for healing, albeit requiring administration in large and frequent doses. Addressing the pathophysiology and optimal treatment strategies for non-NSAID, non-H. pylori associated peptic ulcers remains challenging. The review underscores the H. pylori infection and NSAID use as the most prevalent risk factors for ulcer development. Additionally, genetic predisposition, stress, and comorbidities elevate the risk of ulcer occurrence. Successful eradication and prevention of these risk factors are crucial to averting the presence of ulcers and their complications. Conversely, medicinal plants and their chemical compounds emerge as valuable in preventing and treating various diseases. Consequently, the review provides insights into the etiology, pathogenesis, chemotherapy, and common medicinal plants that may be employed in the treatment or prevention of peptic ulcers.</p> Sharma Anmol, Kaur Jaspreet, Mehra Meenakshi, Joshi Sweta Copyright (c) 2024 Sharma Anmol, Kaur Jaspreet, Mehra Meenakshi, Joshi Sweta https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.apjnh.com/index.php/apjnh/article/view/51 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Formulation development and Evaluation of Floating tablets containing Alogliptin using different polymers https://www.apjnh.com/index.php/apjnh/article/view/52 <p>Formulation F3, comprising of CAB: PEO (80: 20 wt percent) with 1.5 wt percent PVA solution and drug loading (10 wt percent), demonstrated the best entrapment (87.0 and 21.06%) and release (Q12h=78.19 and 0.90%) values in simulated stomach fluid pH 1.2 when compared to other compositions. The microspheres prefer to float over the simulated stomach media for over ten hours. It was discovered that the microspheres' percent buoyancy may reach 89.50 and 1.53%, which suggests that the drug was administered in a gastroretentive way. Stability investigations showed that the particle size distribution and shape of formulation F3 had changed somewhat after one month of storage at 40.2°C and 75% relative humidity. This suggests that formulations were stable under accelerated storage conditions. As a result, efforts were made in the current study to formulate and evaluate CAB and PEO blend microspheres for the gastroretentive floating drug delivery of an antidiabetic drug such as alogliptin using an emulsion solvent evaporation technique with various polymer concentrations in order to improve the drug's short biological half-life and gastric retention time. This study showed that a combination of two hydrophilic and biocompatible polymers, cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and polyethylene oxide (PEO), may be used to make floating microspheres for the efficient and successful integration of alogliptin using an emulsion solvent evaporation approach. The production of a blend of this formulation revealed superior floating capabilities than separate polymers, indicating that blend formation is suitable for the preparation of microspheres.</p> Rahul Patel, Suresh Choudhary Copyright (c) 2024 Rahul Patel, Suresh Choudhary https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.apjnh.com/index.php/apjnh/article/view/52 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of opportunistic infections among people living with HIV in Osogbo, Osun State https://www.apjnh.com/index.php/apjnh/article/view/53 <p>This study aims to identify common opportunistic infections and their prevalence among people living with HIV in Osogbo, Osun state, who are receiving treatments for the HIV virus, which has spread widely. A mixed study design was employed, including a hospital-based retrospective study and a Key Informant Interview. The retrospective study involved 280 HIV patients at State Specialists Hospital Asubiaro SSHA Osogbo, Nigeria, and collected socio-demographic, opportunistic infection diagnosis, and viral load test results. The study also included a Key Informant Interview with six health workers in the HIV care unit. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests, while qualitative data was analyzed using a thematic approach. The study reveals that the majority of People Living with HIV are females (77.1%), with 69% unemployed and 28.6% employed. Most are married (82.5%). In 2020, 58.2% achieved viral suppression, while in 2021, 65.7% and 69% achieved it. Common opportunistic infections include tuberculosis, pruritus, oral candidiasis, and herpes zoster. The prevalence of opportunistic infections decreased from 9.0% to 7.6% between January 2020 and May 2022. The prevalence of opportunistic infections in the study was low, which is due to the high preventive measures employed by the health workers in the hospital. Hence adherence to HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) medications helps to maintain healthy living for People living with HIV.</p> Oladapo Jesuferanmi Tayo, Oyovwi M. Obukohwo, Oladapo Jesutomi Eniola, Oladunmi Opeyemi, Jolayemi Teju Copyright (c) 2024 Oladapo Jesuferanmi Tayo, Oyovwi M. Obukohwo, Oladapo Jesutomi Eniola, Oladunmi Opeyemi, Jolayemi Teju https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.apjnh.com/index.php/apjnh/article/view/53 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000